• Processes for Upgrading Metallurgical Grade Silicon to ...

    With regard to the uniqueness of directional solidification on removal a wide range of impurities from silicon, it is expected that this process will continue to be a part of the best developed process for SoG-Si production. 3.2. Slag refining Slag refining technique is a process candidate for mainly B removal in which the boron impurity in ...

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  • Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid ...

    Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon Table of Contents Page No. Table of Contents i List of Figures and Tables ii ABSTRACT iv 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. BACKGROUND 3 3. OUTLINE OF CURRENT PROGRAM 5 4. MG SILICON FEEDSTOCK 6 5. REFINING OF MG SILICON IN MOLTEN STATE 8 6. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 13 7 ...

  • Thermodynamics on SOG-Si Refining Processes

    Thermodynamics on SOG-Si Refining Processes Institute of Industrial Science, ... ・Thermodynamics and Processing on Solar Grade Silicon (SOG-Si) Production Materials Production and Recycling Engineering Lab. (Formerly Ferrous Metallurgy Lab.) 3 Contents 1. Introduction ... 2 Slag SiO 2 Crucible Molten Si-Mg Alloy Molten MgSiO 3, SiO 2 satd.MgO ...

  • Slag refining of silicon and silicon alloys : a review ...

    In order to optimize the B removal during slag-refining process for solar-grade silicon production, a new process for the removal of B in molten Si was proposed based on the principle of oxidized ...

  • Thermodynamics of solar-grade-silicon refining - ScienceDirect

    In the present paper, the purification process for the solar grade silicon SOG-Si of which the required purity is 7 N, and the thermodynamic considerations and evaluation of the refining process are discussed. Additionally, the refining process for SOG-Si production was evaluated.

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  • Silicon Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis SpringerLink

    Sep 25, 2014  The world production of SOG-Si was estimated to be approximately 0.15 million metric ton in 2011. SEG-Si is also produced chiefly by Siemens process, and its world production was estimated to be about 0.03 million metric ton in 2011. Until now, silicon has not been practically produced by molten salt electrolysis.

  • Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid ...

    Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon ABSTRACT Pyro-metallurgical refining techniques are being developed for use with molten metallurgical grade (MG) silicon so that directionally solidified refined MG silicon can be used as solar grade (SoG) silicon feedstock for photovoltaic applications.

  • An Evolving Method for Solar-Grade Silicon Production ...

    While production of solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si) has been dominated recently by the modified Siemens process and a fluidized bed reactor process, obtaining a stable supply of SOG

  • Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid ...

    Aug 06, 2001  @article{osti_786367, title = {Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon: Final Report, 19 April 2001}, author = {Khattak, C P and Joyce, D B and Schmid, F}, abstractNote = {This report summarizes the results of the developed technology for producing SoG silicon by upgrading MG silicon with a cost goal of $20/kg in large-scale production.

  • Electrochemical Slag-Metal Reaction for Silicon Production

    The slag treatment on MG-Si for SOG-Si production is based on the principle of liquid-liquid extraction in steel industry. The slag used for the extraction of impurities must dissolve individual impurities better than molten silicon does, the solubility of silicon in the slag must be low, and the slag must be nonreactive with molten silicon and ...

  • An Evolving Method for Solar-Grade Silicon Production ...

    While production of solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si) has been dominated recently by the modified Siemens process and a fluidized bed reactor process, obtaining a stable supply of SOG

  • Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid ...

    Aug 06, 2001  @article{osti_786367, title = {Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon: Final Report, 19 April 2001}, author = {Khattak, C P and Joyce, D B and Schmid, F}, abstractNote = {This report summarizes the results of the developed technology for producing SoG silicon by upgrading MG silicon with a cost goal of $20/kg in large-scale production.

  • Electrochemical Slag-Metal Reaction for Silicon Production

    The slag treatment on MG-Si for SOG-Si production is based on the principle of liquid-liquid extraction in steel industry. The slag used for the extraction of impurities must dissolve individual impurities better than molten silicon does, the solubility of silicon in the slag must be low, and the slag must be nonreactive with molten silicon and ...

  • Production of solar grade (SoG) silicon by refining liquid ...

    @article{osti_753817, title = {Production of solar grade (SoG) silicon by refining liquid metallurgical grade (MG) silicon: Annual Report: June 10 1998--October 19, 1999}, author = {Khattak, C P and Joyce, D B and Schmid, F}, abstractNote = {Pyro-metallurgical refining techniques are being developed for use with molten metallurgical-grade (MG) silicon so that directionally solidified refined ...

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    A Study into the Use of Recycle Iron and Steel Slag as an ... in concrete. Estimated total rolling capacity of mills in Nigeria stood at 3.48 million tonnes per year (Elijah, 2013) therefore, the industrial production of iron and steel in Nigeria stood at 1.91052 million tonnes per year using the capacity utilization of 54.9% released by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, 2016).

  • Processes for Upgrading Metallurgical Grade Silicon to ...

    Directional solidification of silicon as mentioned before is a key process step in the SoG-Si production through the metallurgical route. Significantly small segregation coefficient of many impurities (except B and P) between the solid and molten silicon provides proper conditions for silicon refining by directional solidification [8, 9].

  • Kinetics of Silicon Refining using Slag Treatment

    Slag/Silicon mass ratio=2.5 1.4 x 10-6 Mass transport in slag The kinetics of boron removal from liquid silicon during slag refining have been investigated in this research by means of several small-scale experimental studies at temperatures of 14500C to 16500C. Slag and silicon, in batch weights of 7 g, were heated together in an

  • Development of solar grade silicon refining via ...

    As a new promising route for solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) production, metallurgical refining processes was developed in the early eighties of the last century, followed by the establishment of NEDO-JFE process in the beginning of the 2000s, where P was removed by electron beam (EB) in vacuum conditions and B by Ar-H2O plasma.

  • Distribution of impurity elements in slag silicon ...

    Distribution of Impurity Elements in Slag-Silicon Equilibria for Oxidative Refining of Metallurgical Silicon for Solar Cell Applications ... mainly been used as the starting material for producing solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) (99.9999% ... The composition ranges in all cases were designed to give a single molten slag phase at 1500 C. 2.2 Methods

  • Application of Electron Beam Melting to the Removal of ...

    Removal methods of impurity from metallurgical-grade silicon (Si) are intensively studied to produce solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) with a smaller economical load and lower cost. Removal of phosphorus (P) has been an important issue because of difficulties in application of conventional metallurgical methods such as solidification refining. Because P evaporates preferentially from molten Si due ...

  • advantages disadvantages coal wind

    Advantages And Disadvantages of Wind Power. Wind energy is a source of energy that is becoming very popular in many countries of the world. The advantages associated with the use of wind energy (renewable energy, clean, respectful with the environment, etc.) are helping a lot to its growth and implementation in many countries.However, the disadvantages of wind power are also notable and

  • slag from iron ore processing - cvhrketel.nl

    Slag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... The iron is seperated and processed into steel, while the molten Steel Slag Iron Separation Process-Ore Beneficiation ... Steel Slag Iron Separation Process. Brief introduction of steel slag processing production line: Steel slag iron separation equipment researched and developed by our ...

  • Processes for Upgrading Metallurgical Grade Silicon to ...

    Directional solidification of silicon as mentioned before is a key process step in the SoG-Si production through the metallurgical route. Significantly small segregation coefficient of many impurities (except B and P) between the solid and molten silicon provides proper conditions for silicon refining by directional solidification [8, 9].

  • Kinetics of Silicon Refining using Slag Treatment

    Slag/Silicon mass ratio=2.5 1.4 x 10-6 Mass transport in slag The kinetics of boron removal from liquid silicon during slag refining have been investigated in this research by means of several small-scale experimental studies at temperatures of 14500C to 16500C. Slag and silicon, in batch weights of 7 g, were heated together in an

  • Development of solar grade silicon refining via ...

    As a new promising route for solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) production, metallurgical refining processes was developed in the early eighties of the last century, followed by the establishment of NEDO-JFE process in the beginning of the 2000s, where P was removed by electron beam (EB) in vacuum conditions and B by Ar-H2O plasma.

  • Distribution of impurity elements in slag silicon ...

    Distribution of Impurity Elements in Slag-Silicon Equilibria for Oxidative Refining of Metallurgical Silicon for Solar Cell Applications ... mainly been used as the starting material for producing solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) (99.9999% ... The composition ranges in all cases were designed to give a single molten slag phase at 1500 C. 2.2 Methods

  • Application of Electron Beam Melting to the Removal of ...

    Removal methods of impurity from metallurgical-grade silicon (Si) are intensively studied to produce solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) with a smaller economical load and lower cost. Removal of phosphorus (P) has been an important issue because of difficulties in application of conventional metallurgical methods such as solidification refining. Because P evaporates preferentially from molten Si due ...

  • advantages disadvantages coal wind

    Advantages And Disadvantages of Wind Power. Wind energy is a source of energy that is becoming very popular in many countries of the world. The advantages associated with the use of wind energy (renewable energy, clean, respectful with the environment, etc.) are helping a lot to its growth and implementation in many countries.However, the disadvantages of wind power are also notable and

  • slag from iron ore processing - cvhrketel.nl

    Slag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... The iron is seperated and processed into steel, while the molten Steel Slag Iron Separation Process-Ore Beneficiation ... Steel Slag Iron Separation Process. Brief introduction of steel slag processing production line: Steel slag iron separation equipment researched and developed by our ...

  • Removal of boron and phosphorus from silicon using CaO ...

    silicon, accounting for one third of the finished module cost. In recent years a lot of research has been conducted on refining metallurgical grade silicon (MGof -Si, purity>96%) to solar grade silicon (SoG-Si), with the ultimate goal of reducing the production cost. Metallurgical refining route has

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    Silicon - The Environmental Literacy Council. The major environmental impacts associated with silicon derive from its mining. Carbon monoxide is a byproduct of the basic process whereby silicon is prepared from silicon dioxide, but this is a negligible source of atmospheric carbon, compared to the amount generated by combustion of fossil fuels.

  • Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics of Boron Removal from ...

    Abstract. The mechanism by which B is removed from Si to a molten CaO–SiO 2 –CaCl 2 slag, and its subsequent evaporation to a gas phase at 1723 K, has been evaluated with a view to optimize the production of solar-grade Si. By assuming a diffusion model for the transfer of B from Si to molten slag, and its evaporation to a gas phase, the diffusion coefficient of B in slag was investigated ...

  • Removal of Boron from Metallurgical Grade Silicon by Slag ...

    제 1 장 총칙; 제 1 조 (목적) 이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타

  • BORON REMOVAL FROM METALLURGICAL GRADE SILICON

    The slag refining for boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon is a promising metallurgical process for producing solar grade silicon. In this paper, FeCl 2 molten salt has been used as a new refining agent to remove boron from MG-Si. The effects of refining time and mass ratio of MG-Si to FeCl 2

  • slag from iron ore processing - cvhrketel.nl

    Slag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... The iron is seperated and processed into steel, while the molten Steel Slag Iron Separation Process-Ore Beneficiation ... Steel Slag Iron Separation Process. Brief introduction of steel slag processing production line: Steel slag iron separation equipment researched and developed by our ...

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  • Removal of boron and phosphorus from silicon using CaO ...

    silicon, accounting for one third of the finished module cost. In recent years a lot of research has been conducted on refining metallurgical grade silicon (MGof -Si, purity>96%) to solar grade silicon (SoG-Si), with the ultimate goal of reducing the production cost. Metallurgical refining route has

  • Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics of Boron Removal from ...

    Abstract. The mechanism by which B is removed from Si to a molten CaO–SiO 2 –CaCl 2 slag, and its subsequent evaporation to a gas phase at 1723 K, has been evaluated with a view to optimize the production of solar-grade Si. By assuming a diffusion model for the transfer of B from Si to molten slag, and its evaporation to a gas phase, the diffusion coefficient of B in slag was investigated ...

  • Removal of Boron from Metallurgical Grade Silicon by Slag ...

    제 1 장 총칙; 제 1 조 (목적) 이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타

  • BORON REMOVAL FROM METALLURGICAL GRADE SILICON

    The slag refining for boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon is a promising metallurgical process for producing solar grade silicon. In this paper, FeCl 2 molten salt has been used as a new refining agent to remove boron from MG-Si. The effects of refining time and mass ratio of MG-Si to FeCl 2

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    This study investigates the efficiency of B and P removal from ferrosilicon alloy via slag refining. Silicon was alloyed with iron and the alloy was subjected to different compositions of CaO-SiO₂-Al₂O₃ ternary slag at 1600 °C. Distributions of B and P between alloy and slag phases were investigated by ICP-OES analysis. Results indicate that oxygen potential and basicity of slag can ...

  • Stone Refining Silicon - Soby

    A silicon refining process according to claim 1, wherein the reaction chamber is heated differentially as the molten silicon metal is flowed downwardly therethrough, heating of the upper part of said chamber being such as to maintain the temperature therein only slightly above the melting temperature of said metal, and heating of the lower part.

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    The slag derived from stainless steel production presents particular challenges, owing to the handling of fines in its cooled state. Harsco will process Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) slag, from austenitic or ferritic grades of stainless steel. We also have solutions for complying with the most stringent ...

  • Development of solar grade silicon refining via ...

    As a new promising route for solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) production, metallurgical refining processes was developed in the early eighties of the last century, followed by the establishment of NEDO-JFE process in the beginning of the 2000s, where P was removed by electron beam (EB) in vacuum conditions and B by Ar-H2O plasma.

  • Solar Silicon Processes

    3.1 Introduction. Studies and developments of processes which could be used to convert metallurgical grade (MG)-silicon or any kind of impure silicon in a solar grade (SoG) feedstock started early in the 1980s in the United States, Europe, and Japan with almost common objectives and strategies [].The main aim was to demonstrate that physical, chemical, and metallurgical treatments of MG-Si in ...